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    2007年10月WTO对喀麦隆和加蓬贸易政策审议-喀麦隆政府政策声明(英文)

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    World Trade

    Organization

    RESTRICTED

     

    WT/TPR/G/187

    27 August 2007

     

     

    (07-3505)

     

     

    Trade Policy Review Body

    Original:       French

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    TRADE POLICY REVIEW

     

    Report by

     

    Cameroon

     

     

     

     

    Pursuant to the Agreement Establishing the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (Annex 3 of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization), the policy statement by Cameroon is attached.

     

    Note:    This report is subject to restricted circulation and press embargo until the end of the first session of the meeting of the Trade Policy Review Body on Cameroon.


    CONTENTS

     

                                                                                                                                                   Page

    introduction                                                                                                                                                                        5

    I.              RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CAMEROON'S ECONOMY                                                                                5

    II.            SOME RESULTS OF THE REFORMS UNDERtaken                                                                                        6

    (1)           Structural Reforms                                                                                                                             6

    (a)            In the area of trade                                                                                                                      6

    (b)           Legal and institutional business framework                                                                           6

    (2)           Sectoral Reforms                                                                                                                                  8

    (a)            Financial sector                                                                                                                           8

    (b)           Taxation                                                                                                                                        8

    (c)            State-owned companies                                                                                                             9

    (d)           SME/SMI and cottage industry sector                                                                                  10

    (e)            Forestry and environmental sector                                                                                        10

    (f)            Energy and water                                                                                                                      10

    (g)           Telecommunications                                                                                                                 10

    (h)           Transport                                                                                                                                    10

    III.           PROSPECTS FOR CAMEROON'S ECONOMY                                                                                                    10

    (1)           Sectoral Policies                                                                                                                                 11

    (a)            Trade                                                                                                                                           11

    (b)           Rural sector                                                                                                                                12

    (c)            Road infrastructure                                                                                                                   12

    (d)           Energy sector                                                                                                                             13

    (e)            Social sectors                                                                                                                             13

    (2)           Structural Reforms                                                                                                                           14

    IV.           INTERNATIONAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS                                                                                                     16

    (1)           Trade Negotiations at the WTO                                                                                                  16

    (2)           Negotiation of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs)                                               17

    APPENDIX TABLES                                                                                                                                                                19

     



    introduction

    1.                   Since its last WTO Trade Policy Review in 2001, Cameroon has continued with its economic and social reforms (stabilization of the macroeconomic framework and structural reforms), with the support of the international financial community.

    2.                   In 2003, for example, the Government of Cameroon adopted a Poverty Reduction Strategy Declaration.  Cameroon is currently implementing the triennial programme for the period 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2008, which was agreed with the IMF and is supported by the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PGRF).

    3.                   It was against this background that on 28 April 2006 Cameroon reached the completion point of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) and, at the same time, qualified for the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI).  In the long term, reaching the completion point of the HIPC Initiative, which is already having a tangible impact, could secure for Cameroon some CFAF 2,544 billion by way of bilateral and multilateral debt remission, giving the country a sound basis from which to tackle the economic and social challenges it faces.  This will involve promoting and enhancing the viability of public finances and accelerating economic growth, particularly by developing infrastructure, boosting and diversifying exports and improving the business climate and competitiveness.

    I.                   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CAMEROON'S ECONOMY

    4.                   The growth rates in Cameroon's economy are positive but remain inadequate to combat poverty more effectively.

    5.                   Cameroon's main trading partners are:  France, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Belgium, China, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States.

    6.                   Exports and imports are growing, and Cameroon's main exports are:  oil, wood, bananas, coffee, cotton and cocoa.  Oil exports significantly influence the trade balance, which is in structural deficit.

    7.                   Domestic production has clearly suffered from both active and unfair competition from finished products originating in countries with lower production costs, or as a result of smuggling.

    8.                   The reasons for the situation described above are to be found in the structure of Cameroon's foreign trade.  Cameroon in fact imports manufactured products, petroleum oils and substantial quantities of cereals.

    9.                   Domestic industry's production costs remain high, with the result that its products are not very competitive.  It is therefore essential to repair and upgrade the often obsolete production facilities, particularly with a view to the conclusion of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with the European Union by 31 December 2007.

    10.               Cameroon is a predominantly agricultural country, but almost all of its traditional production and export sectors are static, if not in decline.

    11.               Moreover, almost all traditional products are exported unprocessed, with insufficient added value.  This is the result of agricultural practices which remain small-scale, lacking adequate mechanization, using little fertiliser and with limited financial resources.

    II.                SOME RESULTS OF THE REFORMS UNDERtaken

    (1)               Structural Reforms

    12.               In its endeavour permanently to establish an effective and more competitive market economy, the Government has continued to adopt measures designed to reform its trade policy, further liberalize economic activities and enhance its dialogue and partnership with the private sector and civil society through joint management of the economy, as well as to establish a competitive environment in various sectors.

    (a)                In the area of trade

    13.               The following general points are worthy of note:

    ·                     Elimination of quantitative restrictions on imports, licences and other import and export authorizations;

    ·                     freedom to fix prices and profit margins in accordance with market forces;

    ·                     prevention and suppression of anti-competitive trade practices;

    ·                     introduction of measures designed to guarantee fairness in commercial transactions, in particular through metrology controls, a crackdown on discriminatory sales, refusal to sell, holding of stocks for speculative purposes and conditional sales;

    ·                     implementation of legislation on dumping and competition;

    ·                     reorganization of tax and customs regimes to make them more effective and consistent with the subregional programme adopted within the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC);

    ·                     implementation, as of January 2007, of the computerized system of customs administration (ASYCUDA) and the installation of a container scanner at the port of Douala, the main port through which goods enter the country;

    ·                     establishment in Douala of the Single Window for Foreign Trade Operations (GUCE) and introduction of the single electronic window, which is designed substantially to reduce delays in import and export procedures.

    (b)               Legal and institutional business framework

    14.               Since the 1990s, Cameroon has returned to the path of sound, sustained and lasting growth, having embarked on far-reaching changes in the legal system which have made it possible to put in place a legislative and regulatory framework that is liberal, attractive and geared to promoting an environment of competition and competitiveness.

    15.               In 2002, the Government secured adoption of the Investment Charter by the National Assembly.  The Charter is largely based on the one adopted by the CEMAC States in 1999.  The sectoral machinery for its implementation, in particular the Investment Promotion Agency, the Export Promotion Agency and the National Agency for Standards and Quality have still to be put in place.  The Charter substantially strengthens the advantages and legal guarantees accorded to companies wishing to invest in Cameroon.

    16.               As regards legal guarantees specifically, Cameroon is a party to both bilateral and multilateral investment guarantee agreements, including, in particular:

    ·                     The New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, concluded under the auspices of the United Nations;

    ·                     the Washington Convention establishing the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID);

    ·                     the Seoul Convention establishing the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), which is designed to guarantee non-commercial risks;

    ·                     the OHADA Treaty, pursuant to which modern, straightforward legal rules based on international practice have been drawn up in the field of business law.

    17.               As a result of its membership of OHADA, Cameroon also has available to it arbitral machinery – of both an ad hoc and an institutional nature – based on the most effective international instruments, such as the 1985 Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and the 1998 Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce.

    18.               Finally, Cameroon is a party to the ACP-EU Partnership Agreement of 23 June 2000 which provides for arbitration machinery for the settlement of disputes between the African, Caribbean and Pacific States (ACP) and contractors, suppliers or providers of services, linked to European Development Fund (EDF) funding.

    19.               As regards the legal system, the ongoing work of recent years has included implementation of the following measures:

    (i)            Adoption of the Criminal Code, and its publication on the Government's web site;

    (ii)           strengthening of the bench court system in commercial proceedings;

    (iii)         translation into English and publication in the Official Journal of the OHADA uniform acts;

    (iv)         increased oversight of the courts;

    (v)          adoption in parliament of laws concerning the administration of justice and the organization of the Supreme Court and other courts and tribunals;

    (vi)         in addition, the Audit Court has been set up and has begun its work.

    20.               The adoption of this array of legal instruments reflects the determination of the public authorities to modernize further the legal and institutional business framework, in order to attract investment in an increasingly secure environment.

    (2)               Sectoral Reforms

    (a)                Financial sector

    21.               The Government has taken measures to strengthen the financial sector.  In this connection, it should be noted that the Douala Stock Exchange began operations in 2006.

    22.               As regards the Crédit Foncier (Land Bank), with the support of the Central African Banking Commission (COBAC), the Government has embarked on the organization of staffing and of the accounting and financial systems.  On that basis, a number of measures have been taken internally, including the introduction of management and performance indicators which have been widely disseminated at both branch and directorate level;  the preparation of management and audit procedure manuals;  and the refocusing of activities by prohibiting the opening of new current accounts and the granting of overdraft facilities.

    23.               In the microfinance sector, following the measures taken in late December 2005 to secure strict implementation of the rules of establishment for institutions in the sector, the authorities took the following steps to improve their supervision:

                (i)         Increase in the number of inspections to ensure that certain microfinance institutions (MFIs) not authorized to operate were actually closed down;

     

                (ii)        expedited review of the files concerning networks of village banks to regularize their operations;  and

     

                (iii)       initiation of the process of evaluating the net worth and financial viability of the 508 MFIs authorized to operate.

     

    (b)               Taxation

    24.               The reform of 1 January 2004 is significant here.  It led, for example, to the proportional tax and the progressive surtax being amalgamated to form a single tax:  the personal income tax (IRPP), which is based on net overall income.

    25.               The net overall income corresponds to net income in the following categories:

                (i)      Salaries, wages, pensions and annuities;

     

                (ii)     income from fixed capital;

     

                (iii)    property income;

     

                (iv)    profits from craft, industrial and commercial activities;

     

                (v)     profits from farming;

     

                (vi)    profits from non-commercial and equivalent professions.

     

    26.               The same applies to members of civil-law partnerships (natural persons), joint ventures and de facto partnerships which are not liable to company tax.

    (c)                State-owned companies

    27.               Reform of State-owned companies has continued with the assistance of the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation.

    28.               Major progress has been achieved in the process of privatizing SNEC (the national urban water utility), both as a result of the creation of CAMWATER, a State holding company that will ensure that the means of production are maintained and upgraded, and by placing the public drinking water service under a lease management contract.  The invitation to tender for the lease management contract under a public-private partnership was issued in February 2007.

    29.               The process of demerging – winding up – and privatizing CAMAIR, a measure decided in December 2005, has continued with the creation, in 2006, of the Cameroon Airlines Corporation, a government-owned corporation, the majority of the shares in which will shortly be reassigned to a strategic partner.  In April 2007, the Government was obliged to declare unsuccessful the invitation to tender that had been issued, as the negotiations with the provisional successful bidder failed to produce a satisfactory bid.  In addition, the authorities have appointed a liquidator, which has already begun work.

    30.               The invitation to tender for the privatization of CAMTEL was issued in June 2006.  It should result in the transfer of the majority of shares in that company to a major sector operator with the capital base and technical capacities essential for the modernization of telecommunications in Cameroon and the implementation of the relevant sectoral strategy.

    31.               Moreover, the Government has set in place a restructuring plan for CAMPOST.  Under the plan, October 2006 saw the recruitment of a management team which took over management of the company in February 2007, once the management contract had been signed.  One of the management team's main responsibilities is to carry out preparatory work for the establishment of a subsidiary that will be responsible for CAMPOST's financial services.  In order to secure the reconstitution of CAMPOST's assets, the Government has:

    (i)         Opened an escrow account with the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) to hold the transfers from CAMPOST made in implementation of the internal debt settlement plan;

    (ii)        entrusted financial supervision of CAMPOST to the services of the Ministry of the Economy and Finance responsible for monitoring non-banking financial institutions, which will submit a quarterly supervision report.

    32.               As regards State-owned hotels, a call for expressions of interest was launched to recruit a consultant who will be responsible for drawing up an inventory of these facilities with a view to their privatization.

    33.               In parallel, the restructuring programme for other State-owned companies and public administrative bodies – which is primarily designed to reduce the financial burden they place on the national budget and steer them back to their fundamental responsibilities – continued, inter alia, through the reorganization of the Special Council Support Fund (FEICOM) and the provision of support for the resumption of the activities of the Cocoa Development Company (SODECAO).

    (d)               SME-SMI and cottage industry sector

    34.               Government policy on supervision of SME-SMIs and cottage industries has continued, including the launch of phase one of the proposed census of SMEs and the commencement of studies reviewing the possibility of creating handicrafts villages.

    (e)               Forestry and environmental sector

    35.               A Sectoral Forest and Environment Programme (PSFE) was adopted with donor support and is now up and running.

    (f)                 Energy and water

    36.               The Government has adopted a National Energy Action Plan for Poverty Reduction (PANERP) to promote access to basic energy services for the great majority of the population, with a view to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.  Similarly, a long-term development plan for the electricity sector is in the process of being finalized.  The aim here is to facilitate, by 2030, a substantial increase in the energy supply by some 10,000 megawatts, to provide for both population growth and economic development.  The plan fundamentally involves the implementation of several large-scale projects in the sector.

    (g)               Telecommunications

    37.               The Special Telecommunications Fund has been set up.  Designed to support investment policy in this strategic sector, this instrument will enable the Government to provide effective funding for the universal telecommunications service, and to develop telecommunications in a consistent manner throughout the national territory.  Moreover, the public authorities have already put into operation the first multi-purpose community telecentres in certain rural areas.

    (h)               Transport

    38.               In the field of air transport, the Air Transport Safety and Security Project has been put in place.  The Government's aim, following the liberalization of this sector, is to modernize civil aviation and bring it into line with international safety standards.

    39.               As regards land transport, the policy that has been introduced is designed to ensure the safety of the vehicle pool and the ongoing financing of infrastructure maintenance.  In the port subsector, measures have been taken to liberalize and simplify procedures at the Port of Douala.

    III.             PROSPECTS FOR CAMEROON'S ECONOMY

    40.               The Government of Cameroon will further pursue structural reforms to facilitate private sector operations and to promote investment and growth.  This process requires measures to improve the transparency of public finance and to curtail the losses of State-owned companies and improve the services they provide.  To reduce the obstacles to growth and improve the business climate, efforts will be ongoing to extend financial intermediation, promote good governance, update infrastructure, further improve the regulatory framework in the vital sectors of the economy (in particular, energy, transport and forests) and encourage regional integration and international trade.

    (1)               Sectoral Policies

    41.               The authorities will continue to implement sectoral strategies in the areas of rural development, building and public works, energy, industry, trade and social sectors.  All of those strategies are – or will be – accompanied by a medium-term expenditure framework (CDMT).

    (a)                Trade

    42.               In internal trade, the Government will finalize and implement, in collaboration with the private sector and civil society, an internal trade development strategy based on:

    (i)            Control of distribution channels and the training/professionalization of the sector;

    (ii)           effective implementation of sectoral trade facilitation policies (by reducing road checks, harmonizing rules and facilitating procedures etc);

    (iii)         improved consumer protection;

    (iv)         cracking down on quality fraud and smuggling.  At the same time, the authorities intend to continue implementing measures to combat smuggling, forgery, illegal price rises and shortages artificially engineered for speculative purposes.

    43.               As regards external trade, the Government's strategy involves implementing the rules and taking advantage of the opportunities afforded by Cameroon's membership of subregional and international bodies such as:  the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS/CEEAC), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC).  The authorities will also take advantage of the fact that Cameroon is a contracting party to the Cotonou Agreement of June 2000 and the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).

    44.               In the area of regional integration, the Government will pursue regional negotiations with its partners within CEMAC, with a view to further liberalizing trade in accordance with multilateral principles.  To that end, it will endeavour to honour in full community commitments on the facilitation of transport and liberalization of trade, in particular, negotiation on the lowering of and compliance with the common external tariff (CET), and to refrain from introducing supplementary import taxes and duties.  It further intends applying the common rules of origin, improving employment market integration and promoting mutual investment.

    45.               More specifically, measures to boost and diversify exports will be taken in the following areas:

    ·                     Promotion of the processing of certain products (cotton, fruit etc);

    ·                     consolidating traditional commercial partnerships;

    ·                     identifying new export markets for new production chains that are potentially rewarding for producers (white pepper, tea, pineapples, honey, ginger, dried fruits, vanilla, flowers etc);

    ·                     winning new markets and promoting a genuine and standard-setting 'Cameroon brand'.

    46.               Exports of so-called ethnic products will be expanded, specifically in the direction of Cameroonians living abroad.  Particular attention will be paid to the development of new and modern forms of trade such as:  trade in services, fair trade, trade in organically produced products and trade in products from sustainable agriculture.

    (b)               Rural sector

    47.               The rural sector continues to be the dominant sector in Cameroon's economy, in terms of both its contribution to growth and its potential for reducing poverty.  To enable the rural sector to play its proper part in the country's economic and social development, the authorities have adopted – and have been implementing since 2006 – a rural development strategy that covers agriculture, livestock breeding, fisheries and forestry.

    48.               More specifically, in relation to agriculture, the focus will be on supporting private operators with a view to doubling agricultural production by 2015, including by:

    ·                     Facilitating access to the land for young people in particular;

    ·                     facilitating access to credit to encourage microfinance institutions, and creating an agricultural bank whose facilities will be available to all categories of agricultural operator;

    ·                     starting cocoa and coffee cultivation development funds.

    49.               In relation to livestock and fisheries, the strategy will continue to be based on improving the productivity and competitiveness of the production chains that are recognized as being profitable, including ruminants, short-cycle livestock breeding, semi-intensive livestock breeding, non-conventional livestock breeding, fisheries and commercial fish-farming.  As regards forestry, action will focus on the effectiveness of the Sectoral Forest and Environment Programme (PSFE).

    (c)                Road infrastructure

    50.               Given the importance of roads in the process of the country's economic and social development, the Government's policy in this area, implemented as part of the building and public works strategy, hinges on:

    (i)            Extending the road network, taking account of the requirements of industrialization and regional integration policies, service hubs and the need to redeploy agricultural production;

    (ii)          rehabilitating the sections of the road network that are in a poor state of repair, and regularly maintaining the whole of the network to keep it up to standard;

    (iii)       conducting feasibility studies on the construction of new infrastructure.

    51.               More specifically, major construction work will continue, and be completed, on infrastructure, including:

    ·                     Rehabilitation of the Wouri bridge, and renewing the urban road system in Yaoundé and Douala;

    ·                     building permanent links between Cameroon and the CEMAC countries, as well as between Cameroon and Nigeria;

    ·                     building a second bridge over the River Wouri;

    ·                     construction of a motorway between Yaoundé and Douala;  construction of a motorway ring road around the city of Douala, with a junction at Limbe where the port facility will be transformed as a result of the relocation of Cameroon's industrial and naval shipyard.

    (d)               Energy sector

    52.               There is still a substantial shortfall in electricity supply.  To remedy this problem, the Government intends finalizing and implementing the medium- and long-term energy plan.  The plan is designed to provide electricity in sufficient quantities, of good quality and at a lower cost to households, social services and industry.

    53.               In the medium term, the industrial sector is regarded as pivotal in securing growth to reduce poverty.  Consequently, with a view to the entry into force, in 2008, of the EU-ACP economic partnership agreements, one consequence of which will be to dismantle customs barriers, the authorities are relying on being able to offer business in Cameroon an attractive framework in order to boost both levels of investment and competitiveness.

    (e)               Social sectors

    54.               The authorities will continue to implement sectoral strategies for education, health and social development.

    55.               In the area of health, measures will focus both on improving the provision of care and services and on reinforcing the healthcare system.  In terms of improving the provision of care and services chiefly, the aim will be:

    ·                     To take further measures to combat infectious and parasitic diseases, notably HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, as well as non-transmittable conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer;

    ·                     to continue to improve access to essential generic drugs in health centres, at subsidized prices.

    56.               In the area of education, the main focus will be on continuing to expand infrastructure and increase teaching staff, by building new classrooms and recruiting teachers at both nursery and primary, and secondary school level.  In higher education, measures will be taken in the following three sectors:

    ·                     The academic sector, by transition to the LMD (First Degree-Masters-Doctorate) system, bringing Cameroon's universities into line with that international standard;

    ·                     infrastructure, by building new academic infrastructure to cope with the huge increase in qualified young people wishing to go on to higher education;

    ·                     the university sector, particularly in relation to accommodation facilities and the provision of assistance to students.

    57.               In the other social sectors, there will be a particular focus on promoting employment, low-cost housing and the socio economic integration of disadvantaged persons.  In the field of employment, the authorities intend:

    ·                     Finalizing and implementing the national policy document on employment;

    ·                     drawing up an employment plan for young people, women, the disabled, vulnerable groups and the long-term unemployed.  As far as low-cost housing is concerned, the main thrust will be to continue building low-cost housing units in Yaoundé and Douala.

    58.               In regard to the socio economic integration of disadvantaged persons, it is the Government's intention:

    ·                     To finalize and implement the programmes for the protection of children experiencing difficulties;

    ·                     to continue the policy of combating exclusion by granting public assistance and subsidies to institutions that care for the needy, the elderly and marginal groups.

    (2)               Structural Reforms

    59.               Cameroon will pursue and, indeed, expedite reforms in relation to public finances, State?owned companies, governance and the financial sector.

    60.               In the area of public finance, in order to boost non-oil revenues, the action to be undertaken will include the following administrative measures:

    ·                     Improving the collection of personal income tax from individuals within the jurisdiction of tax centres for medium-sized companies set up in Yaoundé and Douala;

    ·                     stepping up efforts to combat fraud and smuggling, by completing the computer link between the Directorate-General of Taxes and the Directorate-General of Customs;

    ·                     reducing the number of tax and customs exemptions;

    ·                     abolishing minimum administrative values for all imported goods;

    ·                     improving VAT administration;

    ·                     implementation by the Government of the recommendations of the Tax Commission recently set up to reduce obstacles to growth and improve the business climate.

    61.               To improve the quality of expenditure, the planned measures will focus on:

    (i)            Continuing to consolidate the payroll database;

    (ii)          the installation of new payroll software to replace ANTILOPE, which can no longer be guaranteed reliable and effective;

    (iii)         improving take-up capacity for resources earmarked for public investment, particularly resources released as a result of debt relief;

    (iv)        guaranteeing transparency in the award of public contracts and compliance with the requisite procedures.

    62.               As far as State-owned companies are concerned, there will be a redoubling of efforts to complete the privatization of CAMAIR, CAMTEL and the operations of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) in the hevea and oil-palm production sector, as well as to finalize the SNEC lease management contract in the context of a public-private partnership.  The process of privatizing SODECOTON will also be set in motion.  It is planned to recruit a consultant to prepare a study on cotton production and define the preliminary issues to be tackled prior to privatizing SODECOTON.

    63.               In the financial sector, the Government intends:

    (i)            Creating CAMPOST's financial subsidiary on the basis of the conditions laid down by COBAC;

    (ii)          rehabilitating the microfinance sector and restructuring the Crédit Foncier in accordance with the plan agreed with COBAC, so that the institution refocuses on the financing of low-cost housing;

    (iii)         implementing the action plan for the restructuring of SONARA to make that body more competitive.

    64.               In the area of governance, the authorities will continue to implement the priority action plan for reform of the judicial system.  They will also continue to implement phase II of the priority action plan for the national governance programme.

    65.               To sum up, being aware that the current rate of growth is insufficient to generate the resources of its own needed to attain the objectives set out in the Poverty Reduction Strategy and the Millennium Development Goals, the Government has begun the process of revising the PRSP of April 2003, with a view to producing a second-generation PRSP in 2007.  Currently being drawn up, the PRSP will cover a five-year period (2008-2012) and will be based on:

    (i)         Consolidating the macroeconomic framework and promoting governance;

    (ii)        promoting strong growth that will generate employment;

    (iii)       mobilizing and encouraging human resources.  The primary aim must be to help achieve the objectives of Cameroon's development vision.  For the next decade (2008-2017), those objectives will be:

    ·      To double per capita income;

    ·      to reduce inequalities;

    ·      to reduce poverty.

    IV.              INTERNATIONAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

    66.               The Cameroonian authorities are aware that international trade can play a major role in fostering development and combating poverty.  Cameroon is therefore actively engaged in the negotiations within the WTO and, in the context of the Doha Development Round and the economic partnership agreements with the EU, within the group of Central African countries.

    (1)               Trade Negotiations at the WTO

    67.               Cameroon has many expectations regarding the Doha Round of negotiations.  The Government is confident that the progress achieved at the Hong Kong Ministerial Conference will not be called into question when the negotiations resume, particularly in relation to agriculture, the sectoral initiative on cotton (Cameroon being francophone Africa's third largest cotton producer) and aid for trade.

    68.               Cameroon is ready and willing to work with the other WTO Member States to contribute to the process of resuming and finalizing the negotiations on the Doha Development Agenda.

    69.               Cameroon expects those negotiations to be resumed in a way that reflects the spirit of Doha, that is to say by taking into account the interests of the developing countries, through:

                (i)      Improved market access for their products;

     

                (ii)     balanced rules;

     

                (iii)       implementation of targeted programmes of technical assistance and capacity-building, backed by sustainable funding.  The aim here is to ensure that the developing countries secure a share of growth in world trade commensurate with their economic development needs.  The concept of development must fully embrace the concept of special and differential treatment, the cornerstone of the Doha structure.  In that connection, the current round should produce a positive decision that takes account of the interests of those developing countries that do not fall into the category of least developed countries (LDCs), but cannot be categorized as emerging countries.

     

    70.               Cameroon also accords a great deal of importance to the issue of aid for trade which should, in particular:

                (i)      Take the form of predictable and sustainable additional resources;

     

                (ii)        be provided in the form of grants and complement but not replace the development pledges entered into by developed countries;

     

                (iii)       ensure that the general concept of 'capacity-building' covers a broader field, including both basic infrastructure and trade-related infrastructure, supply issues and adjustment costs;

     

                (iv)       be free of any form of conditionality, as this would stand in the way of its use by the countries for which it is intended.

     

    71.               The question of trade preferences is also important for Cameroon, particularly long-standing trade preferences, such as those applying to bananas.  Those preferences, which have so far underpinned the development of African countries, cannot be dismantled until there has been a transitional period of equivalent duration.

    72.               As far as NAMA (non-agricultural market access) is concerned, Cameroon supports:

                (i)      The phasing out of tariff peaks, tariff escalation and non-tariff barriers;

     

                (ii)     a degree of protection for the fledgling industries of the developing countries.

     

    (2)               Negotiation of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs)

    73.               Cameroon is in the process of negotiating an economic partnership agreement with the EU in the framework of the Central African region.  The countries involved in the negotiations are:  Cameroon, Gabon, the Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Sao Tomé and Principe.

    74.               Cameroon is persuaded that the EPAs should be incorporated into the development policies of the ACP countries and regions and fully integrated into the European Union's development cooperation policies.  The EPAs should promote sustainable development, the gradual and harmonious integration of the Central African economies into the world economy and the eradication of poverty.

    75.               More particularly, the EPAs should ensure:

    ·                     Promotion of lasting economic growth;

    ·                     expansion of productive and supply capacity;

    ·                     encouragement of the structural transformation of the ACP economies, their diversification and support for subregional integration.  That will require both the establishment of a proper period of transition and asymmetry compatible with WTO rules, and genuine attention to the development dimension.

    76.               Regardless of how the cross-cutting nature of the development dimension is interpreted, it must, of necessity, include the following aspects:

                (i)      Reinforcement of overall productive capacity;

     

                (ii)     reinforcement of export capacity;

     

                (iii)    capacity to respond to market requirements;

     

                (iv)    capacity to engage in commercial governance;

     

                (v)        capacity to mobilize development resources, including foreign direct investment (FDI).

     

    77.               It is important to mention that Cameroon needs additional resources to cover EPA-related adjustment and development costs.  This should also make it possible to ensure that the EDF resources currently available are not diverted from the development priorities of the ACP countries and regions.

    78.               As regards the additional funding and relevant procedures, Cameroon supports:

                (i)         The idea of setting up Regional EPA Adjustment Funds (FORAPE) administered by the regional economic communities themselves, in order to meet the adjustment needs of the individual regions;

     

                (ii)        the view that the EU Member States should undertake to channel the aid funds in a coordinated manner through the financial institutions for regional development, such as the African Development Bank (ADB).

     

    79.               In the interests of efficiency, Cameroon would like to see the EU avoid waiting until the year 2010 to achieve the target of €2 billion for aid for trade, since the EPAs are supposed to enter into force on 1 January 2008.

    80.               In the interests of predictability and transparency, it will also be necessary to clarify how both the European Commission and the Member States – and indeed the other donors – will contribute to the different funds that are to be established.

    81.               Again, in terms of strengthening EU intervention, Cameroon would like to see the EU increase its support to those countries that are not currently eligible for the budget support mechanism, to allow them to meet the eligibility criteria.  Cameroon would also like to see the creation of a budget heading for EPA adjustment in the context of the budget support assistance modality.

    82.               Finally, Cameroon wishes to see the introduction of an effective monitoring mechanism that operates within the general framework of EU-ACP relations, and also at regional level.

    83.               In the circumstances described above, the EPAs would then provide genuine instruments of development for the ACP negotiating countries.


    APPENDIX TABLES

     

     

    Table 1:  Development of certain Cameroonian economic indicators

     

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    Current GDP, production approach (CFAF billion)

    6,612.39

    7,061.44

    7,583.08

    7,916.96

    8,333.88

    8,781.03

    GDP in volume terms, production approach
    (base 100 = 2000)

    6,612.39

    6,910.89

    7,187.95

    7,477.69

    7,754.51

    7,927.79

    GDP per capita (CFAF thousand)

    432

    439

    445

    453

    461

    461

    GDP growth rate

    4.2

    4.5

    4.0

    4.0

    3.7

    2.2

    Inflation rate

    3.2

    2.8

    2.8

    0.6

    0.3

    2

    Current account deficit

    2.3

    -0.6

    -2.9

    1.4

    0.1

    3.3

    Source:    National Institute of Statistics and Ministry of Economy and Finance (MINEFI), Directorate of Economic Affairs (DAE).

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Table 2:  Trends in the trade balance

    Quantity in tonnes and values in CFAF million

    Period

    Jan.-Dec. 2000

    Jan.-Dec. 2001

    Jan.-Dec. 2002

    Quantity / Value

    Q

    V

    Q

    V

    Q

    V

    Exports

    7,428,374

    1,092,198

    7,526,785

    1,397,246

    6,955,097

    1,182,842

    Imports

    3,512,381

    905,941

    4,087,776

    1,205,901

    4,116,155

    1,375,839

    Trade balance

     

    186,257

     

    191,344

     

    -19, 997

     

    Period

    Jan.-Dec. 2003

    Jan.-Dec. 2004

    Jan.-Dec. 2005

    Quantity / Value

    Q

    V

    Q

    V

    Q

    V

    Exports

    6,749,588

    1,318,157

    6,911,840

    1,256,789

    6,437,021

    1,509,215

    Imports

    4,382,110

    1,251,561

    4,621,741

    1,365,047

    4,903,856

    1,524,464

    Trade balance

     

    66,596

     

    -108,258

     

    -15,249

    Source:    National Institute of Statistics and Ministry of Economy and Finance (MINEFI), Directorate of Economic Affairs (DAE).


    Table 3:  Main clients

    Values in CFAF million

    Country

    2000

    Country

    2001

    Country

    2002

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Italy

    377,775

    29.0

    Italy

    346,915

    26.8

    Spain

    249,628

    19.9

    France

    169,460

    13.0

    Spain

    193,224

    14.9

    Italy

    238,053

    19.0

    Chinese Taipei

    144,986

    11.1

    France

    136,655

    10.5

    France

    161,068

    12.9

    Spain

    100,070

    7.7

    Netherlands

    115,284

    8.9

    Netherlands

    160,460

    12.8

    Netherlands

    95,565

    7.3

    Chinese Taipei

    103,829

    8.0

    USA

    84,987

    6.8

    China

    81,146

    6.2

    China

    75,619

    5.8

    China

    54,197

    4.3

    Belgium Luxembourg

    27,948

    2.1

    Belgium Luxembourg

    29,126

    2.2

    Chad

    27,001

    2.2

    Great Britain

    20,703

    1.6

    USA

    26,352

    2.0

    Belgium Luxembourg

    26,625

    2.1

    USA

    19,542

    1.5

    Great Britain

    21,119

    1.6

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    17,988

    1.4

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    19,360

    1.5

    Congo, Dem. Rep. of the

    19,869

    1.5

    Great Britain

    17,892

    1.4

    Congo, Dem. Rep. of the

    17,196

    1.3

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    18,218

    1.4

    Chinese Taipei

    13,946

    1.1

    Gabon

    10,615

    0.8

    Gabon

    11,477

    0.9

    Gabon

    12,994

    1.0

    Chad

    7,253

    0.6

    Chad

    8,502

    0.7

    Congo, Dem. Rep. of the

    7,963

    0.6

    Togo

    4,894

    0.4

    Pakistan

    2,632

    0.2

    Pakistan

    5,498

    0.4

    Benin

    1,668

    0.1

    Togo

    2,423

    0.2

    South Africa

    2,801

    0.2

    Total Selected countries

    1,098,181

    84.2

    Total Selected countries

    111,244

    85.7

    Total Selected countries

    108,102

    86.3

    Grand Total

    1,304,614

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,296,721

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,252,866

    100.0

     

    Country

    2003

    Country

    2004

    Country

    2005

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Spain

    284,633

    21.9

    Spain

    223,412

    17.8

    Spain

    357,599

    23.7

    Italy

    175,116

    13.5

    Italy

    193,006

    15.4

    Italy

    246,325

    16.3

    France

    139,820

    10.7

    France

    182,681

    14.5

    France

    183,036

    12.1

    Netherlands

    138,133

    10.6

    Netherlands

    111,702

    8.9

    Netherlands

    112,549

    7.5

    USA

    98,044

    7.5

    USA

    74,682

    5.9

    Great Britain

    70,298

    4.7

    China

    56,932

    4.4

    Great Britain

    51,541

    4.1

    Belgium Luxembourg

    60,671

    4.0

    Chinese Taipei

    34,256

    2.6

    Belgium Luxembourg

    50,896

    4.0

    USA

    58,871

    3.9

    Belgium Luxembourg

    32,677

    2.5

    China

    33,134

    2.6

    China

    36,221

    2.4

    South Africa

    30,863

    2.4

    Gabon

    23,860

    1.9

    Togo

    32,044

    2.1

    Chad

    26,509

    2.0

    Chinese Taipei

    15,922

    1.3

    South Africa

    28,837

    1.9

    Gabon

    24,866

    1.9

    Chad

    14,202

    1.1

    Guinea

    16,749

    1.1

    Great Britain

    24,689

    1.9

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    11,547

    0.9

    Gabon

    15,009

    1.0

    Congo, Dem. Rep. of the

    16,556

    1.3

    Congo, Dem. Rep. of the

    11,043

    0.9

    Chinese Taipei

    14,592

    1.0

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    14,842

    1.1

    South Africa

    10,778

    0.9

    Congo, Dem. Rep. of the

    14,444

    1.0

    Pakistan

    7,355

    0.6

    Pakistan

    9,732

    0.8

    Chad

    13,865

    0.9

    Total Selected countries

    1,105,291

    84.9

    Total Selected countries

    1,018,138

    81.0

    Total Selected countries

    1,261,110

    83.6

    Grand Total

    1,318,157

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,256,789

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,509,215

    100.0

    Source:    National Institute of Statistics.


    Table 4:  Main suppliers

    Values in CFAF million

    Country

    2000

    Country

    2001

    Country

    2002

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    France

    255,219

    24.1

    France

    326,814

    23.9

    France

    314,780

    24.3

    Nigeria

    203,976

    19.2

    Nigeria

    189,559

    13.9

    Nigeria

    139,084

    10.7

    Japan

    52,092

    4.9

    USA

    106,913

    7.8

    USA

    108,433

    8.4

    Belgium Luxembourg

    51,521

    4.9

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    101,315

    7.4

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    60,511

    4.7

    USA

    50,405

    4.8

    Belgium Luxembourg

    62,367

    4.6

    Japan

    58,691

    4.5

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    42,973

    4.1

    Japan

    61,726

    4.5

    Belgium Luxembourg

    51,866

    4.0

    Italy

    33,436

    3.2

    Italy

    41,371

    3.0

    China

    46,331

    3.6

    China

    31,504

    3.0

    China

    36,629

    2.7

    Italy

    43,277

    3.3

    Netherlands

    25,506

    2.4

    Great Britain

    32,310

    2.4

    Great Britain

    41,630

    3.2

    Great Britain

    22,230

    2.1

    Equatorial Guinea

    29,277

    2.1

    Netherlands

    36,233

    2.8

    Equatorial Guinea

    15,297

    1.4

    Netherlands

    24,820

    1.8

    Thailand

    17,731

    1.4

    Mauritania

    8,628

    0.8

    Mauritania

    11,443

    0.8

    Equatorial Guinea

    12,096

    0.9

    Brazil

    5,466

    0.5

    Thailand

    9,322

    0.7

    Brazil

    11,780

    0.9

    Thailand

    1,952

    0.2

    Brazil

    6,076

    0.4

    Mauritania

    9,930

    0.8

    Vietnam

    37

    0.0

    Vietnam

    844

    0.1

    Vietnam

    183

    0.0

    Total Selected countries

    800,241

    75.4

    Total Selected countries

    1,040,785

    76.2

    Total Selected countries

    952,556

    73.6

    Grand Total

    1,060,910

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,366,222

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,294,971

    100.0

     

    Country

    2003

    Country

    2004

    Country

    2005

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    Value

    Share
    (%)

    France

    227,749

    18.2

    France

    286,769

    21.0

    Nigeria

    396,671

    26.0

    Nigeria

    158,372

    12.7

    Nigeria

    176,522

    12.9

    France

    269,611

    17.7

    Japan

    70,882

    5.7

    Japan

    87,570

    6.4

    China

    75,796

    5.0

    USA

    59,316

    4.7

    USA

    68,065

    5.0

    USA

    70,581

    4.6

    China

    50,331

    4.0

    Belgium Luxembourg

    62,439

    4.6

    Belgium Luxembourg

    56,134

    3.7

    Belgium Luxembourg

    49,166

    3.9

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    58,861

    4.3

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    55,121

    3.6

    Germany, Fed. Rep. of

    44,863

    3.6

    China

    58,442

    4.3

    Japan

    47,779

    3.1

    Italy

    39,485

    3.2

    Italy

    53,255

    3.9

    Italy

    41,247

    2.7

    Netherlands

    37,315

    3.0

    Netherlands

    29,065

    2.1

    Brazil

    37,247

    2.4

    Great Britain

    23,095

    1.8

    Thailand

    28,974

    2.1

    Thailand

    36,324

    2.4

    Brazil

    16,385

    1.3

    Great Britain

    27,500

    2.0

    Equatorial Guinea

    29,316

    1.9

    Equatorial Guinea

    15,270

    1.2

    Brazil

    18,987

    1.4

    Netherlands

    24,629

    1.6

    Thailand

    12,459

    1.0

    Equatorial Guinea

    16,906

    1.2

    Great Britain

    22,675

    1.5

    Mauritania

    10,968

    0.9

    Mauritania

    14,737

    1.1

    Vietnam

    22,486

    1.5

    Vietnam

    2,776

    0.2

    Vietnam

    5,610

    0.4

    Mauritania

    22,280

    1.5

    Total Selected countries

    818,431

    65.4

    Total Selected countries

    993,701

    72.8

    Total Selected countries

    1,207,895

    79.2

    Grand Total

    1,251,561

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,365,047

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,524,464

    100.0

    Source:    National Institute of Statistics.


    Table 5:  Main export products

    Values in CFAF million

    Products

    2000

    Products

    2001

    Value

    Share (%)

    Value

    Share (%)

    Crude petroleum oils

    626,559

    48.03

    Crude petroleum oils

    592,966

    45.73

    Sawn wood

    161,210

    12.36

    Sawn wood

    162,231

    12.51

    Fuels and lubricants

    82,376

    6.31

    Raw cocoa beans

    82,868

    6.39

    Coffee

    67,310

    5.16

    Raw cotton

    71,837

    5.54

    Raw aluminium

    65,105

    4.99

    Fuels and lubricants

    64,575

    4.98

    Raw cocoa beans

    51,910

    3.98

    Raw aluminium

    61,243

    4.72

    Raw cotton

    48,741

    3.74

    Coffee

    54,036

    4.17

    Wood in the rough (logs)

    43,390

    3.33

    Fresh bananas

    33,897

    2.61

    Fresh bananas

    34,609

    2.65

    Cocoa paste

    22,262

    1.72

    Wood veneer sheets

    19,832

    1.52

    Wood veneer sheets

    19,494

    1.50

    Cocoa paste

    17,093

    1.31

    Wood in the rough (logs)

    18,475

    1.42

    Raw rubber

    14,318

    1.10

    Raw rubber

    14,551

    1.12

    Aluminium sheet

    7,455

    0.57

    Cement

    10,432

    0.80

    Total Selected products

    1,239,908

    95.04

    Total Selected products

    1,208,865

    93.22

    Grand Total

    1,304,614

    100.00

    Grand Total

    1,296,721

    100.00

     

    Products

    2002

    Products

    2003

    Value

    Share (%)

    Value

    Share (%)

    Crude petroleum oils

    573,398

    45.77

    Crude petroleum oils

    579,317

    43.95

    Sawn wood

    137,660

    10.99

    Sawn wood

    156,925

    11.90

    Raw cocoa beans

    133,263

    10.64

    Raw cocoa beans

    104,033

    7.89

    Raw cotton

    65,298

    5.21

    Fuels and lubricants

    80,228

    6.09

    Raw aluminium

    44,513

    3.55

    Raw cotton

    62,663

    4.75

    Fuels and lubricants

    42,840

    3.42

    Raw aluminium

    47,377

    3.59

    Coffee

    37,123

    2.96

    Fresh bananas

    41,269

    3.13

    Fresh bananas

    32,104

    2.56

    Coffee

    40,405

    3.07

    Cocoa paste

    29,329

    2.34

    Cocoa paste

    35,460

    2.69

    Wood veneer sheets

    19,845

    1.58

    Wood veneer sheets

    24,712

    1.87

    Wood in the rough (logs)

    18,607

    1.49

    Raw rubber

    18,774

    1.42

    Raw rubber

    16,003

    1.28

    Wood in the rough (logs)

    12,119

    0.92

    Cement

    9,867

    0.79

    Preparations for soups and broths

    9,158

    0.69

     

    Palm oil, crude or refined

    7,942

    0.60

    Total Selected products

    1,159,849

    92.58

    Total Selected products

    1,220,380

    92.58

    Grand Total

    1,252,866

    100.00

    Grand Total

    1,318,157

    100.00

     

    Products

    2004

    Products

    2005

    Value

    Share (%)

    Value

    Share (%)

    Crude petroleum oils

    492,346

    39.17

    Crude petroleum oils

    661,157

    43.81

    Sawn wood

    176,165

    14.02

    Fuels and lubricants

    180,346

    11.95

    Raw cocoa beans

    113,248

    9.01

    Sawn wood

    177,378

    11.75

    Fuels and lubricants

    109,485

    8.71

    Raw cocoa beans

    111,042

    7.36

    Raw cotton

    73,146

    5.82

    Raw cotton

    70,066

    4.64

    Raw aluminium

    45,348

    3.61

    Raw aluminium

    57,827

    3.83

    Coffee

    38,250

    3.04

    Fresh bananas

    35,930

    2.38

    Fresh bananas

    37,388

    2.97

    Coffee

    33,358

    2.21

    Wood veneer sheets

    22,393

    1.78

    Wood veneer sheets

    27,053

    1.79

    Raw rubber

    20,677

    1.65

    Raw rubber

    23,549

    1.56

    Cocoa paste

    17,752

    1.41

    Cocoa paste

    18,598

    1.23

    Wood in the rough (logs)

    13,770

    1.10

    Wood in the rough (logs)

    13,276

    0.88

    Aluminium sheet

    7,488

    0.60

    Aluminium sheet

    7,769

    0.51

    Palm oil, crude or refined

    6,407

    0.51

    Palm oil, crude or refined

    7,164

    0.47

    Total Selected products

    1,173,863

    93.40

    Total Selected products

    1,424,514

    94.39

    Grand Total

    1,256,789

    100.00

    Grand Total

    1,509,215

    100.00

    Source:    National Institute of Statistics.


    Table 6:  Main import products

    Values in CFAF million

    Products

    2000

    Products

    2001

    Value

    Share (%)

    Value

    Share (%)

    Hydrocarbons

    245,726

    23.2

    Hydrocarbons

    249,054

    18.2

    Machinery and mechanical appliances

    95,407

    9.0

    Machinery and mechanical appliances

    152,879

    11.2

    Motor vehicles;  tractors

    93,795

    8.8

    Motor vehicles;  tractors

    126,912

    9.3

    Cereals

    58,830

    5.5

    Articles of iron or steel

    110,286

    8.1

    Electrical machinery and equipment

    49,101

    4.6

    Cereals

    77,714

    5.7

    Salt;  sulphur;  earths;  cement

    39,951

    3.8

    Electrical machinery and equipment

    71,797

    5.3

    Inorganic chemicals

    37,940

    3.6

    Inorganic chemicals

    48,852

    3.6

    Passenger vehicles

    33,150

    3.1

    Passenger vehicles

    44,941

    3.3

    Paper and paperboard

    32,338

    3.0

    Paper and paperboard

    39,253

    2.9

    Pharmaceutical products

    32,258

    3.0

    Pharmaceutical products

    38,558

    2.8

    Other wheat and meslin

    29,513

    2.8

    Goods vehicles

    37,691

    2.8

    Aluminium oxide

    25,967

    2.4

    Aluminium oxide

    34,993

    2.6

    Products of the milling industry;  malt

    25,521

    2.4

    Plastics

    33,240

    2.4

    Total Selected products

    799,497

    75.4

    Total Selected products

    1,066,169

    78.0

    Grand Total

    1,060,910

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,366,222

    100.0

     

    Products

    2002

    Products

    2003

    Value

    Share (%)

    Value

    Share (%)

    Hydrocarbons

    190,394

    14.7

    Hydrocarbons

    223,084,248

    17.8

    Machinery and mechanical appliances

    167,199

    12.9

    Machinery and mechanical appliances

    127,996,992

    10.2

    Motor vehicles;  tractors

    112,052

    8.7

    Motor vehicles;  tractors

    116,567,299

    9.3

    Cereals

    87,984

    6.8

    Cereals

    69,660,623

    5.6

    Electrical machinery and equipment

    84,269

    6.5

    Electrical machinery and equipment

    63,027,292

    5.0

    Pharmaceutical products

    46,147

    3.6

    Passenger vehicles

    47,767,462

    3.8

    Paper and paperboard

    42,420

    3.3

    Pharmaceutical products

    43,900,836

    3.5

    Articles of iron or steel

    41,788

    3.2

    Paper and paperboard

    37,669,837

    3.0

    Passenger vehicles

    41,094

    3.2

    Inorganic chemicals

    36,751,634

    2.9

    Inorganic chemicals

    38,683

    3.0

    Plastics

    36,635,580

    2.9

    Plastics

    36,996

    2.9

    Other wheat and meslin

    32,753,597

    2.6

    Other wheat and meslin

    31,973

    2.5

    Fuels and lubricants

    32,086,458

    2.6

    Salt;  sulphur;  earths;  cement

    29,951

    2.3

    Articles of iron or steel

    32,038,459

    2.6

    Total Selected products

    950,949

    73.4

    Total Selected products

    899,940

    71.9

    Grand Total

    1,295,021

    100.0

    Grand Total

    1,251,561

    100.0

     

    Products

    2004

    Products

    2005

    Value

    Share (%)

    Value

    Share (%)

    Hydrocarbons

    229,436,391

    16.8

    Hydrocarbons

    457,443,551

    30.0

    Machinery and mechanical appliances

    121,602,863

    8.9

    Cereals

    113,116,912

    7.4

    Electrical machinery and equipment

    113,669,261

    8.3

    Motor vehicles;  tractors

    102,061,169

    6.7

    Motor vehicles;  tractors

    113,638,919

    8.3

    Machinery and mechanical appliances

    101,102,958

    6.6

    Cereals

    89,779,117

    6.6

    Electrical machinery and equipment

    75,316,781

    4.9

    Pharmaceutical products

    48,139,019

    3.5

    Inorganic chemicals

    46,484,195

    3.0

    Passenger vehicles

    46,793,648

    3.4

    Pharmaceutical products

    41,527,320

    2.7

    Inorganic chemicals

    46,481,796

    3.4

    Passenger vehicles

    40,673,126

    2.7

    Plastics

    39,281,905

    2.9

    Salt;  sulphur;  earths;  cement

    39,080,651

    2.6

    Paper and paperboard

    37,838,317

    2.8

    Plastics

    38,827,145

    2.5

    Aluminium oxide

    34,388,821

    2.5

    Paper and paperboard

    35,412,793

    2.3

    Articles of iron or steel

    32,880,758

    2.4

    Aluminium oxide

    35,374,930

    2.3

    Salt;  sulphur;  earths;  cement

    32,116,065

    2.4

    Fish and crustaceans

    33,165,391

    2.2

    Total Selected products

    986,047

    72.2

    Total Selected products

    1,159,587

    76.1

    Grand Total

    1,365,047

    100,0

    Grand Total

    1,524,464

    100.0

    Source:    National Institute of Statistics.

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