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    2008年6月WTO对美国贸易政策审议-主席总结发言(英)

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    TRADE POLICY REVIEW: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    9 and 11 June 2008

    Concluding remarks by the Chairperson


     


    This ninth Trade Policy Review of the United States has allowed us to hold a frank discussion on U.S. trade policies and practices, focusing on changes since the last U.S. review in March 2006. The discussions have benefited from the full engagement of the U.S. delegation, led by Ambassador Allgeier, from the constructive contributions by the discussant, Ambassador Uribe, and from the comments by Members.

    Members noted that the United States is the world's largest economy and trader, and recognized the efficiency that characterizes it. However, they were concerned about the slowdown of U.S. economic activity. The United States indicated that exports had helped mitigate the slowdown, and that the stimulus package adopted in 2008 would keep the economy growing for the next few quarters, with growth accelerating towards the end of 2008.

    Members welcomed the United States' reaffirmation that the multilateral trading system remains at the core of its trade policy. Continued U.S. leadership was seen as key to ensuring a successful outcome to the DDA negotiations, with the U.S. delegation stressing the broad support in the U.S. Congress for an ambitious result from such negotiations. While noting that, in general, the United States has complied with WTO notification obligations and DSB rulings, Members stressed that some notifications were lagging and the full implementation of certain rulings remained pending. Members also referred to various aspects of U.S. preferential trade initiatives, and expressed appreciations for its contribution to aid-for-trade.

    Members recognized the overall openness of the U.S. trade regime, but were concerned about tariff peaks and other specific trade-related measures. They considered certain technical regulations and SPS measures to be unduly trade restrictive. Members also noted the persistence of some market access restrictions in Government procurement. The United States replied to a large number of questions posed by Members concerning its IPR regime.

    The use of anti-dumping measures by the United States gave rise to concern, especially with respect to the increase in investigation initiations in 2007, the lengthy duration of measures, continued disbursements under the repealed Byrd Amendment, and methodological aspects of investigations including “zeroing”.

    Members also expressed concern at the recently adopted 2008 Farm Bill, considering it a missed opportunity to improve the market orientation of the U.S. agricultural sector. They noted the new Bill's potential for increasing trade-distorting support, and questioned its compatibility with the goals of the DDA. The U.S. authorities noted that the implementing regulations for the 2008 Farm Bill were yet to be issued and that any new U.S. commitments made in the DDA context would be the subject of further implementing legislation. Several Members urged the United States to reconsider its assistance to biofuels in the context of rising food prices. The United States replied that its increased conversion of cereals into biofuels was only one of several factors contributing to higher prices for such commodities.

    Border measures and security was another major theme of this Review. While Members expressed understanding of U.S. efforts to enhance security, many indicated that measures, like the 100% scanning requirement, imposed additional costs on international trade. Therefore, they encouraged the United States to ensure that security-related initiatives were as least trade-restrictive as possible. Some Members also noted that recent legislative reforms to the review process of the national security implications of FDI may create uncertainty for foreign investors.

    On services, Members noted in particular their concern with respect to the Jones Act in maritime transport, foreign ownership caps in air transport, the lack of a unified insurance market, and restrictions on mode 4 services supply.

    I would like to conclude by noting that this review has taken place at a particularly challenging time for the multilateral trading system and the world economy. Members recognized that the United States maintains a largely open trade regime but also expressed concern about a number of specific measures and policies. In this regard, it is my understanding that Members were reassured by the United States stating that it remains firm in its belief in the value of open markets and the WTO, and that a successful DDA outcome is its top trade negotiating priority. The latter is of utmost importance because strengthening the multilateral trading system would be to the benefit of the U.S. and world economies alike.

    In closing I would like to thank once again the U.S. delegation for the oral and written responses provided during the meeting; we all look forward to receiving answers to the remaining questions within one month.

    This concludes the 9th Trade Policy Review of the United States. However, before I adjourn the meeting, I wish, on a personal note, to mention that Mr. David Walters, in charge of economic affairs in USTR, has been part of the U.S. effort in each of its nine reviews. This is his last review. Thank you Mr. Walters for all your work — we all wish you well. I also thank the interpreters for their hard work.